Civil cases deal with conflicts between persons. For instance, in labor cases, when an employee contests his on-the-spot dismissal. Or for example in family cases such as a divorce, or when there is a dispute about liability for the damage in a traffic accident. Civil cases often deal with contracts (lease, sales and other types of contracts).
The civil judge has what is called residual power, meaning that he has judicial authority in cases where the law did not appoint another judge to resolve that particular type of conflict. Civil law is also often denoted private law.
Download: Procesreglement Civiele Zaken 2018